A Treaty is an agreement between states, nations or governments, and can include an agreement between First Peoples and governments. A Treaty can contain statements of principle, guidelines for future relationships, reparations for past injustices, and guarantees and promises about First Peoples land, sovereignty and identity.

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the victorian context

In February 2016, the Victorian Government committed to advancing self-determination for Aboriginal Victorians by working towards Australia’s first Treaty/ies with First Peoples.

 The Advancing the Treaty Process with Aboriginal Victorians Bill 2018 was introduced by the Labor Government in early 2018 and successfully passed through the Victorian Parliament on 21st June 2018.  

For more information, including further details about the Victorian Treaty Advancement Commission, the First Peoples' Assembly of Victoria (formerly known as the Aboriginal Representative Body) and Reconciliation Victoria’s role please click here. Download our Treaty fact sheet here.


Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples have been calling for treaty/ies for many decades. Negotiation of Treaty/ies and agreements by all governments and parliaments were recommendations of the final report of the Council for Aboriginal Reconciliation in 2000.

The First Nations National Constitutional Convention in 2017 brought together 250 Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples and led to the Statement from the Heart, which includes the following: 

“Makarrata is the culmination of our agenda: the coming together after a struggle. It captures our aspirations for a fair and truthful relationship with the people of Australia and a better future for our children based on justice and self-determination. We seek a Makarrata Commission to supervise a process of agreement-making between governments and First Nations and truth-telling about our history.” 

The Federal Government initially rejected the Statement. They formed another Joint Select Parliamentary Committee on Constitutional Recognition relating to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples, co-chaired by Pat Dodson. The Committee considered the calls in the Statement and tabled a report to Parliament in November 2018

A number of other jurisdictions are progressing their own treaty and agreement making processes, and looking to Victoria with interest. The South Australian Government had commenced treaty negotiations with Traditional Owners before a change of government, and discussions are also underway in the Northern Territory and Queensland.